More Hispanic Than We Admit 4, Quincentennial Edition 1821–2021 Filipino and Spanish Interactions over the Centuries

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More Hispanic Than We Admit 4
Quincentennial Edition
Filipino and Spanish Interactions over the Centuries

Edited by Jorge Mojarro
With a foreword by Marya Svetlana T. Camacho

More Hispanic than We Admit 4 navigates through two hundred years of history—from 1821 to 2021—that reify the enduring importance of the Hispanic legacy in the evolution of a distinctly cosmopolitan Filipino identity. This volume explores topics as varied as the Augustinians’ trailblazing missionary efforts in the Cordilleras; the significant role of the Moro region in the development of the nascent Philippine nation-state; the origins of the Jesuit-run Manila Observatory and its lively scientific pursuits; the intertextual impact of Hispano-Filipino intellectuals on shaping modern nationalist discourse; José Rizal’s semiotic transformation into a martyr and his novels’ similarities with contemporaneous Spanish-American literature; the social stratification of the Katipunan and their association with Freemasonry; the Spanish friars’ significant but often overlooked contributions to the conservation of Philippine languages; distinctly Filipino interpretations of Spanish poet-martyr Federico García Lorca’s poetry; the twists and turns of cultural and diplomatic relations between the Philippines and Spain from the Spanish Civil War to the present day; and the enduring, if increasingly vestigial, presence of Spain in the Philippines, viewed from a unique anthropological perspective.

This anthology of thirteen diverse, thought-provoking, and interconnected essays reveals the scale of a truly global Hispanic culture borne of the legacy of cultural, political, and socioeconomic ties. Supplemented with archival records, anecdotal accounts, and rare images and maps, the book offers its readers an engaging and enriched understanding of how the Philippines, in the throes of its identity-building, will always be more Hispanic than it can ever admit.

This volume is the sequel to the previously published More Hispanic Than We Admit 3 (finalist for best history book at the 39th National Book Awards). The two volumes form the special edition collection to commemorate the quincentenary of Spanish-Philippine interactions from 1521 to 2021.



This book is yet another brilliant addition to the highly acclaimed multi-volume series with its collection of new, classic, and thought-provoking studies by eminent scholars. Editor Jorge Mojarro has put together essays that foreground different dimensions of Philippine-Spanish encounters using a variety of approaches. This volume is indeed an invaluable contribution to scholarship on the Philippines. It is a must-read for anyone who wants to study Philippine society, culture, and history.

— Grace Concepción
University of the Philippines Diliman

The More Hispanic Than We Admit series strikes again. In this new installment under the Académica Filipina collection, Spanish scholar and editor Jorge Mojarro offers thirteen compelling research and interpretative essays that make crucial contributions to the debates about modernization, identity, proto-nationalism, linguistics, and law. This is an extraordinarily balanced and learned collection that ensures the continuation of this successful saga.

—Alexandre Coello de la Rosa
Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona


JORGE MOJARRO obtained a master’s degree in Spanish language and literature at the Universidad Sevilla and a PhD in Spanish and Latin American literature at the Universidad de Salamanca with a dissertation on sixteenth-century Spanish Philippine colonial literature. A long-time Philippine resident, he is an associate professorial lecturer of the Department of Literature of the University of Santo Tomás. His wide-ranging research interests include Latin American literature, the history of the Philippine book, colonial and modern Spanish Philippine literature as well as missionary linguistics. He published annotated editions of Teodoro Kalaw’s Hacia la Tierra del Zar (2014) and Buenaventura Campa’s Entre las Tribus del Luzón (2016). Dr. Mojarro has been a fellow of The Huntington Library, California, and the Lilly Library of Indiana University and is a research fellow of the Research Center for Culture, Arts, and the Humanities of UST. He also edited two special issues on Spanish Philippine literature for the peer-reviewed journals Revista de Crítica Literaria Latinoamericana and Unitas. In 2020, he served as the editor of the journal Guaraguao for its special issue about transpacific exchanges during the Baroque era.

© 2024
480 pages


Foreword by Marya Svetlana T. Camacho 

Introduction by Jorge Mojarro 

The Augustinians in the Philippine Cordillera: The Benguet Missions
by Roberto Blanco Andrés 

Mangayaw: Moro Wars, China Trade, and the Formation of Moro Pre-nationalism
by Eric S. Casiño 

Performing Science in the Colonies: The Manila Observatory and the Professional Bodies of the Liberal State in a Time of Reforms and Modernization in the Philippines
by María Dolores Elizalde

Apolinario Mabini, Isabelo de los Reyes, and the Emergence of a “Public”
by Resil B. Mojares

José Rizal and the Foundational Novels of Latin America
by Jorge Mojarro 

Constructing Filipino Identity: The Clerical Issue at the Birth of Filipino Nationalism
by Roberto Blanco Andrés 

Notes on the Katipunan in Manila, 1892–1896
by Jim Richardson

Linguistic Contributions of Spanish Missionaries in the Philippines (1820–1921)
by Rebeca Fernández Rodríguez 

Federico García Lorca in the Philippines
by Rocío Ortuño Casanova

The Spanish Influence on Philippine Law
by Rubén F. Balane

Benigno del Rio’s Testimonies on the Japanese Occupation (1941–1945)
by Axel Gasquet

The Philippines and Spain, from the Spanish Civil War to Postmodernity, 1936–2021
by Gaspar A. Vibal

The Crippling of an Identity
by Fernando N. Zialcita

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